"A LITTLE HISTORY OF THE REP. DOM." Santiago de los Caballeros Travelogue by REYNALDOPICHARDO
Santiago de los Caballeros Travel Guide: 38 reviews and 69 photos
On september 24, 1963 a military coup overtrown the first democratic elected goverment on 31 years in the Dominican Republic. This "coupe de etat" propiciated by the Dominican Right led the Country by a path of goverment repression and official corruption and in april 24th, 1965; ended in civil war with the posterior disembarkment of the 82 airborne on Dominican soil.
After the blow of September was initiated in the country a hunt against those persons that were qualified as communists by the different agencies of "security" of the State. Immediately protests exploded in all the country being one of the bloodiest the one carried out by students in front of the National Palace in July of 1964, which was machine gunned by the police turning out several dead students and scores of injured. November 28, 1963, Manolo Tavárez Justo, that had lived in secrecy since the coup of September, initiates an armed uprising against the Triunvirate. Tavárez was named like Most supreme Commander of the uprising and was located in the "Guerrilla Front Enrique Jiménez Moya" in Manaclas. Other guerrilla groups were: Gregorio Luperón, located in The Limon; Mauricio Báez, in the Berrenda, Miches; Juan de Dios Ventura Simó, in The Horma, San José of Ocoa and Francisco del Rosario Sanchez in Bahoruco, Enriquillo. After intense fights against the governmental troops, the guerrillas, decided to yield. Manolo Tavárez died December 21, 1963 when he tried to surrender to the troops that besieged him, was killed losing thus the country one of its big leaders. The following day of the death of Manolo Tavárez, presented his resignation in disgust to the Triunvirate Emilio de los Santos as protest for the treatment given to the guerrillas that surrendered in the clash of the Manaclas. Emilio de los Santos was substituted by Dr. Donald Reid Cabral which came to be the president in functions. The government of the triunvirate was seen unqualified by the proliferation of the corruption in all the environments and the country plunged himself in such a state of agitation that many times it was feared that anarchy would explode. The growing discontent on the part of the people and the reigning disorganization in all the environments of the national life favored that among a group of official youths to arise the idea of a counterattack that would replace Bosch into power. This movement counted also with the political consent of parties of the opposition -the PRD among them.
.The movement that was gestated among the soldiers and that intended to re-establish deposed president Bosch power and to proclaim the constitution of 1963 had like main ringleader Lieutenant Colonel Rafael Tomás Fernández Domínguez. The organization of this prompt movement arrived at ears of the members of the Triunvirate and because of it the Lieutenant Colonel Fernández Domínguez was sent to Spain with a diplomatic charge. Other members of the group were destituted of their positions, among them: Major Agustín Núñez Nogueras, the captain Hector Lachapelle Díaz, the captain Quiroz Pérez and others that subsequently would support the uprising against the Triunvirate. After Colonel Fernández Domínguez was forced to leave the country , the coordination of the group of "constitutionalists" as it would be called subsequently is handed down to Colonel of the National Army, Hernández Ramirez. Aside from the "constitutionalists", there were other groups inside the same Armed Forces that also conspired to oust the Triunvirate, being emphasized the one known as "The Clan of San Cristóbal" which was headlined by the then colonel of the National Army Neit Nivar Seijas, which supported for the overthrow of Reid Cabral with the objective of facilitating the return to the presidency of the Dr. Joaquín Balaguer. The date in which the uprising would be initiated was set in several occasions, but diverse factors impeded that this was carried out. One of the most serious intents was produced at the beginning of April of the 65, but this intent failed because one of the officials implied in the same one reported it to Dr. Reid Cabral. Again the date was postponed for April 25 but the 24 of the same month several of the officials implied in the counterattack were arrested by then Army chief of staff General Rivera Cuesta. In lieu of such circumstances the captain Mario Peña Tavéras freed his companions of conspiracy and put under arrest general Rivera Cuestas, colonel Nivar Ledesma and other soldiers opposed to the movement.
Besides the Armed Forces Camp 27 of February, where these facts were produced that accelerated the start of the uprising, also revolted itself against the Triunvirate the Armed Forces Camp 16 of August. At 1:30 of the afternoon of that day the news of the uprising was promulgated through the radio programming of the PRD "Democratic Tribunal", the same one indicated that captain Peña Taveras had called to the radio station to report that "officials of the armed forces supported by the enlisted men of the Camp 27 of February had taken prisoners the Army Chief of staff, general Rivera Cuesta, and they uprised themselves against the Triunvirate". In few minutes hundreds of demonstrators traveled through the streets of the capital, singing slogans against the Triunvirate and in favor of the re-establishment of the government of bosch." That same day Radio Santo Domingo, the state official radio, was taken by the rebels and through its waves emitted proclaims asking the support of the people. Later the building was recovered by loyal soldiers to theTriunvirate and its occupants arrested. Subsequently it fell again to the constitutionalists. In the meantime Dr. Reid Cabral gave an ultimatum to the rebels at 5 A.m of the 25th so that they deposed their weapons. That ultimatum was rejected by the constitutionalists and the 25th in the morning spreaded still more the demonstrations of support for the movement. In the camps incited the soldiers to distribute weapons to civil followers of the uprising and the strategic occupation of positions of the capital was arranged in order to face the soldiers that maintained loyalty to the government of the Triunvirate. Hundreds of demonstrators traveled through the streets of the capital and they occupied positions of the police where they obtained weapons of war. The forces that tried to brake the constitutionalists movement were commanded by the General Elías Wessin and Wessin, then director of the Center of Studies and Teaching of the Armed Forces (CEFA) and based on the air base of San Isidro.
Approximately at 10:25 of the morning of the 25th, Reid Cabral renounced his functions as member of the Triunvirate. At noon, was appointed provisional president of the Republic Dr. José Rafael Molina Ureña, he had been president of the Senate of the Nation during the government of Bosch.
That same day, the chief of the military opposing the constitutionalists movement ordered the bombardment of the National Palace and of other strategic points occupied by the rebels. April 26th they continued the bombardments to the constitutional positions, mainly at the National Palace and at the head of the bridge Duarte, strategic point that joined Santo Domingo with the air Base of San Isidro. April 27, the Provisional President Molina Ureña, the colonel Francisco Alberto Caamaño Deñó and other leaders of the movement went to meet with the American ambassador in the country William Tapley Bennett, in the American embassy. According to the majority of the witnesses, the colonel Caamaño and other constitutionalists soldiers were incensed by the deal offered by the diplomat to the commission, left toward the head of the bridge Duarte to face the loyal soldiers of the Triunvirate. In the meantime Molina Ureña the provisional president asked for assylum in another embassy.
In the bridge Duarte the followers of the constitutionalists movement, under the command of the colonel Caamaño, colonel Ramón Manuel Monte Arache and others, stopped the advance of the armored forces of the CEFA that advanced from San Isidro to appease the rebellion. Colonel Caamaño reported that day to journalists of the Newspaper El Caribe that the capital was in the hands of the constitutionalists forces
"The humiliation that the government of the United States of America caused to the Dominican Republic, militarily invaded, signifies also a painful humiliation for Latin America. What norms, what principles can serve to the American nations to be worth their vocation and their right to the independence, when the American rulers decide, with vain excuses and supported in the force of their guns, to impose them their political destiny? Where do they go to demand that they recognize the right of a country to be independent and owner of its own life? What agencies, what institutions will be capable to defend those rights and to encourage tthese countries to exercise them, without fear of the intrusion of the ones that have declare themselves referees of the foreign
decision? »: Colonel Francisco Alberto Caamaño Deñó
This is a division of tanks of the Dominican Armed Forces making their way into the city of Santo Domingo from the San Isidro's Air Base.
These were only deployed after the 82 AIrbone Landed in Dominican Republic, with several Tank divisions in support, Surrounding the constitutionalists forces and later supporting US forces in ground attacks against civilian supporters of the Constitutionalists forces, That day dies the first American Soldier. A young man from the north mountains of new York. Killed by a shot from a roof top, in a street of this city that never in its life had anybody heard the name before that day. The first Dominican victim is a boy of five years. Dies from wounds by a tossed hand granade in a balcony. The invading US forces confuse him with a sniper. , the civilian count was in the thousands, in contrast the loses suffered by US and US led Dominican divisions was in the hundreds, after international outrage, and not in small part to the denounces of newspapers in the US like the NYTimes, All US forces were removed from the island in favor of a US led and controlled OEA (OAS in english) Intervention troops from the military dictatorship of Brazil, the military dictatorship of Paraguay, the military dictatorship of Honduras and the military dictatorship of Nicaragua, They send troops to the Dominican Republic to save the Democracy threatened by the people. José Mora Otero, Secretary general of the OAS, reunites with the colonel Caamaño. He offers him six million dollars if he abandons the country. He's sent to the crap.
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