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Major General John Fulton Reynolds
United States Volunteers
Born September 21, 1820
Killed July 1, 1863
From the reverse of the equestrian monument:
Cadet U.S.M.A. July 1, 1837; Brevet Second Lieut. 3d U.S. Artillery July 1, 1841; Second Lieut. October 23, 1841; First Lieut. June 18, 1846; Captain March 3, 1855; Lieut.-Colonel 14th Infantry May 14, 1861; Colonel 5th Infantry June 1, 1863.
Brig. General U.S. Volunteers August 20, 1861;
Major General November 29, 1862. Breveted Captain U.S. Army September 23, 1846 "for gallant and meritorious conduct at Monterey, Mexico;
Major February 28, 1847 "for gallant and meritorious conduct at Buena Vista, Mexico.
The equestrian statue was sculpted by Henry Kirke Bush-Brown, who also did the Meade and Sedgwick equestrian statues and the bust of Lincoln in the Lincoln Speech Memorial, It was dedicated in 1899, with Reynolds' nephew Charles Reynolds Evans pulling the cord that unveiled the monument.
The statue weighs four and a half tons, yet is superbly balanced with only two of the horse's feet on the ground. The monument follows the unofficial rule where a horse with two feet off the ground indicates its rider was killed in battle.
The Second Monument:
In memory of Major General John Buford
Comdg. 1st Div. Cav. Corps
Army of the Potomac
who with the
first inspiration of
a cavalry officer
selected this battlefield
July 1st, 1863.
From the rear:
From this crest
the opening gun
of the battle:
one of the four
cannon at the base of
John Buford was born in Kentucky on March 4, 1826. He was the half-brother of Union General Napoleon B. Buford and the cousin of Confederate General Abraham Buford.
West Point trained and a veteran of the 2nd Dragoons, Buford recognized the importance of Gettysburg's strategic position as a hub of several major roads. He expertly positioned his division to delay the Confederate forces advancing on the city until Union infantry could reach the field, allowing the Army of the Potomac to control the vital high ground south and east of town throughout the battle.
Buford did not survive the year. Stricken with typhoid during the autumn campaign on the Rappahannock, he died on Dec. 16, 1863. A deathbed promotion to Major General was made effective to July 1, 1863, his triumph at Gettysburg.
The bronze statue was created in 1895 by sculptor James Kelly, who was well known for his statues of military figures. Kelly's interviews with his subjects were published in 2005 in Generals in Bronze, edited by William B. Styple.
The cannon surrounding the monument are the actual pieces of Calef's Battery, 2nd United States Artillery, Battery A. The barrel facing down Chambersburg Pike (the one facing toward the lower right corner of the photograph) fired the first Union artillery shot of the battle under General Buford's personal direction. Captain Calef tracked it down after the war using its serial number, 223. It is marked by a small bronze plate which can be seen in the photo on top of the barrel.
The Third Monument:
149th Pennylvania Infantry
(1st Regt. Bucktail Brigade)
2d Brig. 3rd Div. 1st Corps.
July 1st. The Regiment held this position from 11:30 a.m. until the Corps retired, resisting several assaults of the enemy, making two successful charges to the R.R. Cut and changing front to rear under fire.
July 2nd. Moved to support of the left and remained on picket all night. In the morning of the 3rd moved to left center where its other monument stands."
Carried into action 450.
Killed and mortally wounded 66. Wounded 159. Captured or missing in toal 336.
Mustered in Aug. 30th, 1862.
Mustered out June 24th 1865.
The Fourth Monument:
Army of the Potomac Cavalry Corps
Second Brigade Horse Artillery
Battery A Second U.S. Artillery
Six 3 inch rifles
Lieut. John H. Calef Commanding
June 30 Arrived in the evening from Emmitsburg and took position on the Chambersburg Pike.
July 1 Advanced with the Cavalry. Went into position with right section on right of the road left section on the left and center section with Col. Wm. Gamble's Brigade on the right of Fairfield Road. The First Union gun of the battle was fired from right section and the positions held under a severe fire until the First Corps arrived about 10 a.m. The Battery was then relieved by Capt. J.A. Hall's 2nd Maine Battery and after being supplied with ammunition returned to a line in front of Cemetery Ridge and towards night moved to the left about a mile and bivouacked for the night near the Third Corps.
July 2 A.M. marched with the First Brigade of Major General John Buford's Division to Taneytown en route to Westminster
Casualties: wounded 12 men. Lost 13 horses killed.
The Fifth Historical Marker:
Army of the Potomac First Corps Third Division
Col. Roy Stone Col. Langhorne Wister
Col. Edmund L. Dana
143d 149th 150th Pennsylvania Infantry
July 1. Arrived and went into position at McPherson buildings between Reynolds Woods and the Railroad Cut and was subjected to a heavy front and enfilading artillery fire from the right. Repulsed repeated attacks of Brig. Daniel's Brigade Major Gen. Rodes's Division from the right as well as front attacks until pressed on both flanks and in front by superior numbers. It retired to Seminary Ridge and held temporary breast works there until the Corps retired before overwhelming numbers to Cemetery Hill when the Brigade with the Division took position at the left of the cemetery on and near the Taneytown Road.
July 2. Late in the afternoon moved to left and took position previously occupied by First Division Second Corps.
July 3. Remained in the same position under the heavy artillery fire in the afternoon.
The strength of the Brigade July 1st 1315
Casualties Killed 4 Officers 105 Men Wounded 35 Officers 430 Men Captured or Missing 8 Officers 271 Men Total 853
Address: 1195 Baltimore Pike, Gettysburg, PA 17325-2804
Directions: On Chambersburg Pike (U.S. 30) at Meredith Avenue
Phone: 717-334-1124, ext 8023
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