"Not the entire Republic of France" France by speed4turtles
France Travel Guide: 61,833 reviews and 172,050 photos
Before we start " Welcome ".
Let me remind you that my normal tongue is Dutch and at the time i was going to school we must learn French as second language.
So please, If i do or write something wrong, forgive me .
On its way North, the Meurthe River has carved out the hills which surround Nancy today. It is on one of these, hills, mount Sainte Geneviève, that proof is to be found of the first human settlement. There are traces of the extraction of "minette" (a type of iron ore) which the Iron Age man could easily mine.
In Nancy, nothing remains of the Gallo Roman period, but the barbarian invasions left the area with a vast Alamanni cemetery.
From the 12th to the 15th century Nancy, which had risen from its ashes, now encircled by walls and with solid stone houses, prospered and spread until it became the county town and the capital city of the Duchy.
In 1298, the dukes' castle was transfered from its original site (present-day Lafayette street) where it was spared from flooding by the Meurthe, to of Grande Rue. Until the 15th century, the dukes succeeded in keeping a balance between the French Realm and the Holy Roman-German Empire, guaranteeing the independance of their duchy. Craft industries and trade were very dynamic. The neighbouring town of Saint Nicolas de Port is a good example as it asserted itself as one of the main commercial (and financial) centres in Europe. Greatly benefiting from its influence Nancy incorporated the very old Saint Dizier suburb, built the Saint Georges ducal funeral chapel in 1339 and the Craffe Gate in the second part of the 15th century. At the same time, the city continued its extension by constructing suburbs to the south.
1477 The struggle between the rulers of Armagnac and Burgundy shook Lorraine; at the beginning of the 15th century, Lorraine joined the Barrois, thus endowing Nancy with the incontestable status of capital city of the duchy. The Burgundian sovereigns tried to take hold of Lorraine but were stopped by René II who defeated Charles the Bold in January 1477 under the walls of Nancy. Nancy was thus relieved from a particularly difficult siege. The gratitude of the duke took the form of tax exemptions, of the reconstruction of the city walls and of a votive church and adjoining monastry for Cordelier monks.
Avignon has historically stood as both the capital of Christianity and the capital of culture. Back in the 14th century Avignon was transformed into a second Rome, and for more than 70 years was the capital of Christianity.
With these facts in mind, there’s no better place to start your tour than the main square and the Palace of the Popes.
Nine Popes have held court in Avignon over the years. Avignon’s past was not always peaceful, and the palace now stands as half-fortress, half-palace. Tourists are welcome to enter the palace and see some of the city’s most important history.
Today Avignon’s history blends seamlessly with modern France. Apart from the obvious French culture Avignon’s most identifiable characteristic is the famous Pont d’ Avignon bridge. The bridge was built 800 years ago by a shepherd turned saint and since then it has been made famous by a song sung by children all over the world - "Sur le pont d'Avignon."
Both the capital of the nation and of the historic Île de France region, Paris is located in northern central France. Central Paris - known as Intra-Muros, or within the walls - is a nice, oval-ish shape, divided neatly in two by the Seine, with 20 arrondissements (districts) spiralling clockwise from the centre in a logical fashion. The area north of the river, the Rive Droite (Right Bank), includes the tree-lined Avenue des Champs-Élysées, running west to the Arc de Triomphe. East of the avenue is the massive Musée du Louvre, the Centre Georges Pompidou and a lively district of museums, shops, markets and restaurants. Immediately south of the Pompidou Centre on the Île de la Cité is the world-famous Notre Dame. The area south of the river, the Rive Gauche (Left Bank), is home to the city's most prominent landmark, the Eiffel Tower. To the east, in the Saint Germain de Prés and Montparnasse districts, Paris' famous academic, artistic and intellectual milieus waft in and out of focus through a haze of Gitanes smoke.
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